Übersetzung für 'dans le feu de l'action' im kostenlosen Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „in action“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context : in the action, action in the field, in the action plan, action in this area, action in. Übersetzung für 'action' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
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LARP events have a wide variety of styles that often overlap. Simple distinctions can be made regarding the genre used, the presence of simulated weapons or abstract rules, and whether players create their own characters or have them assigned by gamemasters.
There is also a distinction between scenarios that are only run once and those that are designed to be repeatable. Theatre-style , or freeform , LARP is characterised by a focus on interaction between characters that are written by the gamemasters, not using simulated weapons for combat, and an eclectic approach to genre and setting.
Events in this style typically only last a few hours and require relatively little preparation by players and are sometimes played at gaming conventions.
Some murder mystery games where players are assigned characters and encouraged to roleplay freely also resemble theatre-style LARP.
Some very large events known as fests short for festival have hundreds or thousands of participants who are usually split into competing character factions camped separately around a large venue.
There are relatively few fests in the world, all based in Europe and Canada; however, their size means that they have a significant influence on local LARP culture and design.
While some LARPs are open to participants of all ages, others have a minimum age requirement. There are also youth LARPs, specifically intended for children and young people.
Some are run through institutions such as schools, churches, or the Scouts. Denmark has an especially high number of youth LARPs. Roleplaying may be seen as part of a movement in Western culture towards participatory arts, as opposed to traditional spectator arts.
LARP is not well known in most countries and is sometimes confused with other role-playing, reenactment, costuming, or dramatic activities.
While fan and gamer culture in general has become increasingly mainstream in developed countries, LARP has often not achieved the same degree of cultural acceptability.
This may be due to intolerance of the resemblance to childhood games of pretend, a perceived risk of over-identification with the characters, and the absence of mass marketing.
It is often shown in a positive light in mainstream media, with an emphasis on the dramatic and creative aspects. Communities have formed around the creation, play and discussion of LARP.
These communities have developed a subculture that crosses over with role-playing, fan, reenactment, and drama subcultures.
LARP has been a subject of academic research and theory. Much of this research originates from role-players, especially from the publications of the Nordic Knutepunkt role-playing conventions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Larp disambiguation. History of live action role-playing games. Embodiment means that the physical actions of the player are regarded as those of the character.
LARP participants may dress in the costume of their character and carry appropriate physical props e. Whereas in a RPG played by a group sitting around a table, players describe the actions of their characters e.
Live-Action Role-Playing Games can take place in indoor or outdoor settings, in private or public spaces. Live Role-Playing in Modern Times".
In Markus Montola, Jaakko Stenros. Physical structures may be used as game locations, and sometimes even purposely constructed to enhance the game world Players frequently use physical artifacts as props and tools in their role-play, primarily to back up their character roles.
In essence, the GM creates the magical circle around the game. The GM can also be responsible of [ sic ] hunting down cheaters or other rule breakers.
The GM is generally, unless the LARP is small in terms of number of participants, not responsible for keeping the narrative flow.
The GM can however oversee the progress of the game and help or influence where needed Establishing a hierarchy of GMs and NPCs to monitor the game and ensure everyone is entertained and activated within the shared game space is a typical way of controlling large fantasy LARPS.
This structure is usually established before the game commences. Though not all games will require them, it is occasionally necessary to have a support staff to help coordinate events and NPCs as a stage manager or running crew might.
The physical performance necessary to pull off a performance in a LARP makes it impractical for a single person to handle many NPC roles. As a result, there is often a cast of characters who take on the roles of other NPCs.
NPCs, then, are a form of pseudo-player. They play the game, their characters have somewhat more limited goals, but they are ultimately constrained by the plot.
Players from all of these continents claim to have hosted the oldest LARP, however, it appears that LARPs developed independently and with marked cultural differences.
Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on John Kenneth Muir website. In , Walt Frietag and some friends at Harvard University "invented" what they called "interactive literature.
Frietag called his group the "Harvard Society for Interactive Literature", which was shortened to "Society for Interactive Literature" the next year.
Arcanacon I - 83 handbook. Live Action Role Playing. Die Entwicklung realer Kompetenzen in virtuellen Welten in German. Since the year there are two organisers who hold about once a year the so-called "big Cons" where there are no maximum limits to the number of participants and in which there are usually between three and seven thousand live action role-players including people from around Europe.
Aufsatzsammlung zum MittelPunkt , Braunschweig: Retrieved April 25, Professional, full-time LARP sites also exist As Larp Grows Up. Nordic art larp is more about exploring a particular emotion, or taking a journey into your own psyche.
Journal of Interactive Drama. The purpose of such dialogue can be politically or artistically motivated.
These games have a message that is aimed either at the players, at bystanders, or society as a whole. From the "Basic Rules" section: This means none whatsoever, even with consent Similarly, the Rules to Live By system forbids certain sorts of physical action, and recommends against realistic-looking weapons: Participants should never, ever use real weapons, even as props.
They should be extremely cautious about anything that looks like a real weapon - police get nervous. The third and youngest design ideal is pervasive larp.
These pervasive LARPs blur the line between larp and life as the game spills onto the streets. The whole world becomes a playground The University of Tokyo.
Alternate reality gaming is the most widely established subgenre of pervasive gaming, but others are evolving as well.
International Journal of Role-Playing 1. Retrieved 29 July You want to hit someone with a sword? You have to actually hit the player with a prop representing a sword, usually a padded weapon.
Simulated combat is more abstract. It uses an external method that does not rely on player ability. For example, if you want to hit the other person with a sword, you may have to make a rock-paper-scissors challenge.
This theme can be pretty much anything you can imagine; the possibilities are inexhaustible. To give some obvious and common examples, it may be fantasy and involve magic, heroes, and fantastic creatures, much like the game world settings of the classic tabletop role-playing games.
Or, it may be realistic, based on historic events or contemporary life. Or it can be futuristic post apocalyptic environments, involving mutants and cyborgian characters dwelling in deserted cities.
Generally, these can be divided into either real-world settings or fictional settings. Notes on designing repeatable larps PDF.
Larp, the Universe and Everything. International Fantasy Gaming Society. The Masquerade - a countercultural performance". You can search the forum without needing to register.
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Registration and participation are free! Ask the LEO community. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Zur mobilen Version wechseln.
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Klicken Sie einfach auf ein Wort, um die Ergebnisse erneut angezeigt zu greyhound deutsch. It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects ; the reader or listener infers a subject.
Some Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Weinberger points out, however, that when an "I" as a subject is inserted, a "controlling individual mind of the poet" enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line.
Without a subject, he writes, "the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader. Nouns have no number in Chinese.
Chinese verbs are tense -less: For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity. Link proposes a kind of uncertainty principle that may be applicable not only to translation from the Chinese language, but to all translation:.
Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved.
Any translation except machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.
Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires.
Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic.
In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions.
Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries of close contacts and exchanges.
Especially after the Renaissance , Europeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins.
Arabic and, to a lesser degree, Persian became important sources of material and perhaps of techniques for revitalized Western traditions, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions.
Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one. In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge.
Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream of information on virtually anything that interested them. Between and The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi —73 , who had spent five years in Paris in the late s, teaching religion to Muslim students.
This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention.
The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax , and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions.
Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism , writes Christopher de Bellaigue , "with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness.
It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world. Fidelity or "faithfulness" and felicity  or transparency , dual ideals in translation, are often though not always at odds.
Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom.
John Dryden — wrote in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:. A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity faithfulness is said to be "faithful"; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, " idiomatic ".
Depending on the given translation, the two qualities may not be mutually exclusive. The criteria for judging the fidelity of a translation vary according to the subject, type and use of the text, its literary qualities, its social or historical context, etc.
The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation appear more straightforward: Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation.
Translators of literary , religious , or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text.
Also, a translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide "local color". While current Western translation practice is dominated by the dual concepts of "fidelity" and "transparency", this has not always been the case.
There have been periods, especially in pre-Classical Rome and in the 18th century, when many translators stepped beyond the bounds of translation proper into the realm of adaptation.
Adapted translation retains currency in some non-Western traditions. The Indian epic, the Ramayana , appears in many versions in the various Indian languages , and the stories are different in each.
Similar examples are to be found in medieval Christian literature, which adjusted the text to local customs and mores.
Many non-transparent-translation theories draw on concepts from German Romanticism , the most obvious influence being the German theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher.
In his seminal lecture "On the Different Methods of Translation" he distinguished between translation methods that move "the writer toward [the reader]", i.
In recent decades, prominent advocates of such "non-transparent" translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman , who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,  and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti , who has called on translators to apply "foreignizing" rather than domesticating translation strategies.
The question of fidelity vs. There is, however, no sharp boundary between formal and functional equivalence. On the contrary, they represent a spectrum of translation approaches.
Each is used at various times and in various contexts by the same translator, and at various points within the same text — sometimes simultaneously.
Competent translation entails the judicious blending of formal and functional equivalents. Common pitfalls in translation, especially when practiced by inexperienced translators, involve false equivalents such as " false friends "  and false cognates.
A "back-translation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text.
Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation.
But the results of such reverse-translation operations, while useful as approximate checks, are not always precisely reliable. In the context of machine translation , a back-translation is also called a "round-trip translation.
Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story , " The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County ".
When a document survives only in translation, the original having been lost, researchers sometimes undertake back-translation in an effort to reconstruct the original text.
An example involves the novel The Saragossa Manuscript by the Polish aristocrat Jan Potocki — , who wrote the novel in French and anonymously published fragments in and — Portions of the original French-language manuscript were subsequently lost; however, the missing fragments survived in a Polish translation, made by Edmund Chojecki in from a complete French copy that has since lost.
Many works by the influential Classical physician Galen survive only in medieval Arabic translation. Some survive only in Renaissance Latin translations from the Arabic, thus at a second remove from the original.
To better understand Galen, scholars have attempted back-translation of such works in order to reconstruct the original Greek. When historians suspect that a document is actually a translation from another language, back-translation into that hypothetical original language can provide supporting evidence by showing that such characteristics as idioms , puns , peculiar grammatical structures, etc.
For example, the known text of the Till Eulenspiegel folk tales is in High German but contains puns that work only when back-translated to Low German.
This seems clear evidence that these tales or at least large portions of them were originally written in Low German and translated into High German by an over- metaphrastic translator.
Supporters of Aramaic primacy —the view that the Christian New Testament or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language —seek to prove their case by showing that difficult passages in the existing Greek text of the New Testament make much more sense when back-translated to Aramaic: Due to similar indications, it is believed that the 2nd century Gnostic Gospel of Judas , which survives only in Coptic , was originally written in Greek.
Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.
As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions , subsequently adopted by other writers.
A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences , but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei , "comes close to being a lifetime job.
Viewed in this light, it is a serious misconception to assume that a person who has fair fluency in two languages will, by virtue of that fact alone, be consistently competent to translate between them.
Translation, like other human activities,  entails making choices, and choice implies interpretation. And there, my dear, I beg you to let yourself be guided more by your temperament than by a strict conscience The necessity of making choices , and therefore of interpretation, in translating [f] and in other fields of human endeavor stems from the ambiguity that subjectively pervades the universe.
Part of the ambiguity, for a translator, involves the structure of human language. Psychologist and neural scientist Gary Marcus notes that "virtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous , often in multiple ways.
Our brain is so good at comprehending language that we do not usually notice. Ambiguity is a concern to both translators and, as the writings of poet and literary critic William Empson have demonstrated, to literary critics.
Ambiguity may be desirable, indeed essential, in poetry and diplomacy ; it can be more problematic in ordinary prose. A translator is faced with two contradictory tasks: A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing.
But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest.
Translating has served as a school of writing for many an author, much as the copying of masterworks of painting has schooled many a novice painter.
Translating like analytic philosophy compels precise analysis of language elements and of their usage. In the poet Ezra Pound , then at St.
Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia , and the early modern European translators of the Bible , in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated.
They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures ; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures , idioms , and vocabulary.
Interpreting , or "interpretation," is the facilitation of oral or sign-language communication , either simultaneously or consecutively, between two, or among three or more, speakers who are not speaking, or signing, the same language.
The term "interpreting," rather than "interpretation," is preferentially used for this activity by Anglophone translators, to avoid confusion with other meanings of the word " interpretation.
Interpreters have sometimes played crucial roles in history. As a child she had been sold or given to Maya slave-traders from Xicalango, and thus had become bilingual.
Nearly three centuries later, in the United States , a comparable role as interpreter was played for the Lewis and Clark Expedition of —6 by Sacagawea.
As a child, the Lemhi Shoshone woman had been kidnapped by Hidatsa Indians and thus had become bilingual. Sworn translation , also called "certified translation," aims at legal equivalence between two documents written in different languages.
It is performed by someone authorized to do so by local regulations. Some countries recognize declared competence. Others require the translator to be an official state appointee.
In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, translators must be accredited by certain translation institutes or associations in order to be able to carry out certified translations.
Many commercial services exist that will interpret spoken language via telephone. There is also at least one custom-built mobile device that does the same thing.
The device connects users to human interpreters who can translate between English and other languages. Web-based human translation is generally favored by companies and individuals that wish to secure more accurate translations.
In view of the frequent inaccuracy of machine translations, human translation remains the most reliable, most accurate form of translation available.
While not instantaneous like its machine counterparts such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish , web-based human translation has been gaining popularity by providing relatively fast, accurate translation of business communications, legal documents, medical records, and software localization.
Language tools on the internet provide help in understanding text. Computer-assisted translation CAT , also called "computer-aided translation," "machine-aided human translation" MAHT and "interactive translation," is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program.
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